In 1997, a declining industrial city in northern Spain, submerged in a deep economic, environmental, and social crisis, opened an innovative branch of the Guggenheim museum. Today, Bilbao boasts an urban landscape that is both considerate of its citizens and attractive to visitors. As a result, the ‘Guggenheim effect’ became a worldwide phenomenon, showing that a large-scale architectural project could transform a city. Or could it?
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